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In 21st century, commencing and managing a business become a very hard task. There are a number of reasons that make operation of the business quite complicated and inefficient management of human resources is one of them. In the present research study leadership theories are discussed that must be followed for effective management of HR. Cultural diversity is another factor that makes management of HR more complex. Hence, varied, relevant theories are discussed in this context in the report. Ineffective communication is another factor which makes management of HR complex. Hence, approaches that can be followed for effective communication are explained in the report. Employees often abstain from accepting change and it is one of the major issues for the firm. With respect to this change management process is explained in the report. At the end of the report, motivational theories are explained with application and concept of emotional intelligence is explained. Apart from this, ways in which engagement with employees can be increased is also explained in the report.
Leadership theories and approach
Leadership is the art of motivating subordinates or followers towards achievement of the objective that is determined for the specific time period. Leadership plays vital role in the success of any organization. Good leadership ensures that human resources and other aspects of business will be managed effectively and efficiently which will lead to good management at the workplace and achievement of target (Marcy., 2019). If leaders are compared with each other then it can be observed that each of them follow different leadership theory and style. So, the interesting fact is that successful leaders who are well known in their business domain for effective management follow different leadership style. This makes it necessary to analyze significance and limitation of varied leadership theories and practices. Hence, leadership theories are explained below.
• Behavioral theories: Behavioral theories state that leader behavior determines his success and failure in business management. This theory state believed that leaders are not by born, they can be made and by behaving in a proper manner or by reacting in a proper manner on time they can manage a business in a proper manner. It is believed under mentioned theory that leader’s behavior directly has an impact on their performance different leadership behavior may be appropriate in different situation.
• Contingency theory: This theory states that there is no proper standard or guideline that can be followed to provide effective leadership in the workplace (Top, Akdere and Tarcan, 2015). Situations are dynamic and every time leader has to behave or react differently according to the demand of the situation. Those who remain stuck to specific leadership style often failed to manage some aspects of business in proper manner.
• Transformational leadership theory: This theory state that the degree of interaction between leader and its followers play pivotal role in cementing strong relationship between both entities. More is the interaction between entities trust will increase, which will motivate subordinates to work better at the workplace. Transformational theory believed that leaders transform their subordinates through their inspirational behavior. Thus, leaders must focus on maintaining strong relationships with subordinates.
• Transactional theory: In this theory, it is believed that in order to get work done through subordinates in better way there must be rearward and punish system. If the employee does well he must be rewarded or vice verse.
In the current time period, employees are becoming more demanding and their effective use becoming more challenging task. At workplace groups of employees formed, out of which some are there who always motivate their colleagues to go against management. Apart from this, some are not motivated and often have a grievance about management rude behavior. Thus, ideally any leader must follow, transformational and transaction leadership theory (Hsieh and Wang, 2015). Effective implementation of these theories will ensure that the leader in liaison with subordinates is working and if they have any problem giving proper guidance and supporting them. Such kind of things will motivate employees to work hard and even after providing lots of support if they failed to perform then penalty must be imposed. In this way in proper manner HR can be utilized and managed at the workplace.

On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that one must follow, transformational and transition leadership style because by doing so one can focus on multiple areas and can give good leadership. Cultural differences negatively affect firms, and due to this reason by considering cultural factors in each nation employees must be managed in different manner. Formal language must be used content of message must be short and specific so that message can be communicated in better way. While implementing any change at the workplace, employees must be taken into confidence and their issues must be addressed so that their full support can be received. Financial and non financial incentives must be given to the employees so that they can be motivated at the workplace. While motivating employees leader must understand self feelings and must take calculative action to handle the situation in the best way. I learn a lot of things from research like we must have full control of our emotions and to become good leader one must be open towards subordinates. Moreover, leader must take into confidence its subordinates before implementation of change. By doing so one can give good leadership. Thus, present research study increases my knowledge to great extent.

Books and journals
Adamovic, M., 2018. An employee-focused human resource management perspective for the management of global virtual teams. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 29(14). pp.2159-2187.
Andresen, M. and Bergdolt, F., 2017. A systematic literature review on the definitions of global mindset and cultural intelligence–merging two different research streams. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 28(1). pp.170-195.
Dias, D., Zhu, C.J. and Samaratunge, R., 2017. Examining the role of cultural exposure in improving intercultural competence: implications for HRM practices in multicultural organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. pp.1-20.
Harmon, D.J., Green Jr, S.E. and Goodnight, G.T., 2015. A model of rhetorical legitimation: The structure of communication and cognition underlying institutional maintenance and change. Academy of Management Review. 40(1). pp.76-95.
Hsieh, C.C. and Wang, D.S., 2015. Does supervisor-perceived authentic leadership influence employee work engagement through employee-perceived authentic leadership and employee trust?. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 26(18). pp.2329-2348.
Hu, J. and Liden, R.C., 2015. Making a difference in the teamwork: Linking team prosocial motivation to team processes and effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal. 58(4). pp.1102-1127.

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