MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS: 102 EMM

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Introduction
In a tubular heat exchanger double plate, various components can be found, among them here for the discussion heat exchanger of the rear tubular plate will be selected. Moreover, for the material here Nickel alloy will be selected. Here the function of the component and service condition of the component as well as material property and composition of materials in the heat exchanger will be discussed as well.
1. Component Function and Operating Environment
1a. The function of the component
A tubular heat exchanger is equipment which is designed for processing of the heat transfer among two types of fluids as well as it is also designed for heat transferring among the surface of a solid and moving fluid. In order to withstand low and high working pressures and a wide range of process temperatures, the heat exchanger is usually made from special types of alloys. It raises the temperature of the fluids using a warmer heat tube exchanger as well as it also cools down the temperature of the fluid using another tube at a lower temperature(Sacome.com, 2020). It is also used for condensing the gases as well as for evaporating the fluids at the same time. Due to the absence of joints, it becomes reliable and robust for which it is used in different industries such as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. It is used for avoiding cross-contamination and for creating product channel cleaning of CIP.
1b. Service condition of the component
There are several design factors which needed to be considered at the time of designing of tube heat exchangers among them pressure drop, a number of passes, corrugation arrangements, Chanel velocity and temperature approach ate some of the main ones. Temperature approach is essential in a tube heat exchanger minimum temperature approach is 1-3 F, all though it needs to be understood that with smaller temperature approach there are more plates needed in the exchanger which improves the cost of the exchanger, thus for an ideal design, 5-10 F is most suitable(Super-metals.com, 2020). Pressure drops are also one of the main considerations in the heat exchanger, with higher pressure exchangers there are smaller gaps on the heat exchanger can be seen. In order to reduce the flouring among the plates in the heat exchanger channel, velocity is very crucial in a heat exchanger as well. In most applicable designs, there are 1-2 ft/2 flows allowed for reducing fouling that ensures the safety of the component. In the component plate gaps also play a crucial factor as gap among plate’s increases the velocity and lower the drop in pressure, which, however, transfers heat as there is less contact among the fluids with the two sides of the plate. The typical gap among the plat varies from 1.3 to 1.5 mm (Dragonplate.com, 2020).
2. Material Properties and Selection
2a. Material property requirements
In the times of selection of the materials for the heat exchanger, there are various aspects which need to become with consideration among them operation, maintenance and constructions of the heat exchangers are the main. Service parameters, upset conditions and special conditions such as side fluids, risk of combining tube and shell maintenance and radioactivity are also considered. Nickel alloy Incoloy 800 is one of the most used and preferable alloys for this matter(Dragonplate.com, 2020). That is because used materials for these aspects needs to have high heat transfer coefficient, low thermal coefficient of expansion, good creep characteristics and tensile, corrosion rate normal for decreasing then attack, and needs to withstand power for developing tube and cell fluids mixing chemistry. Proposed alloy is made from nickel, chromium and iron alloys which have great strength and also can resist the carburization and oxidation at an exposure of high temperature. Incoloy 800 can withstand this and can be applied for conditions where the temperature is up to 1100 degree Fahrenheit. However, there are other Incoloy 800 such as Incoloy 800H and Incoloy 800 HT which can be applied in the application of temperature over than 1100 degree Fahrenheit. Moreover, it has tensile of 75 to 100 ksi, 30 to 60 of .2% yield ksi, and elongation of 60-30% which makes it good resistance of sulphur-containing atmosphere and the acidic environment as well as it also gets great creep-rupture strengths and high-temperature strength at the same time.


Conclusion
From the above discussion, it can be suggested that heat exchangers are very durable equipment which can be made with Incoloy 800 to make it more effective for its application for its characteristics. Moreover, it also can be suggested that FRC can be used for greater application in future for its effectiveness and applicability.

References
Bahiraei, M., Salmi, H.K. and Safaei, M.R., 2019.Effect of employing a new biological nanofluid containing functionalized graphene nanoplatelets on thermal and hydraulic characteristics of a spiral heat exchanger. Energy conversion and management, 180, pp.72-82.
Dickson, A.N., Ross, K.A. and Dowling, D.P., 2018. Additive manufacturing of woven carbon fibre polymer composites. Composite Structures, 206, pp.637-643.
Dragonplate.com, (2020), WHAT IS CARBON FIBER?, Accessed from: https://dragonplate.com/what-is-carbon-fiber, Accessed on: 13th July, 2020.
Sacome.com, (2020), Heat Exchanger | Advantages, uses and applications, Accessed from https://www.sacome.com/en/heat-exchanger-advantages-uses-applications/#:~:text=The%20tube%2Din%2Dtube%20heat,space%20between%20the%20two%20tubes.&text=The%20product%20flows%20by%20the,it%20by%20the%20external%20channel., Accessed on: 13th July, 2020.
Song, K., Xi, Z., Su, M., Wang, L., Wu, X. and Wang, L., 2017. Effect of geometric size of curved delta winglet vortex generators and tube pitch on heat transfer characteristics of fin-tube heat exchanger. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 82, pp.8-18.
Super-metals.com, (2020), Selection of materials for heat exchangers, Accessed from: https://super-metals.com/news/selection-of-materials-for-heat-exchangers-2/, Accessed on: 13th July, 2020.
Wang, F.L., He, Y.L., Tong, Z.X. and Tang, S.Z., 2017. Real-time fouling characteristics of a typical heat exchanger used in the waste heat recovery systems. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 104, pp.774-786.

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